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E-Commerce Solutions

Introduction: E-commerce domain can provide all the right ingredients for successful data mining and claim that it is a killer domain for data mining. With the proliferation of the electronic commerce e-purchasing has become a daily practice for many purchasing organizations. Data mining has been used in e-commerce for some time already. It has many applications in this field such as: searching for patterns in transactional data, preparation of personalization applications, etc. . However, before this kind of data analysis will be ever possible, an e-commerce system itself needs to be successfully implemented.

In an effort to further the development of e-commerce, the federal Electronic Signatures Act (2000) established uniform national standards for determining the circumstances under which contracts and notifications in electronic form are legally valid. Legal standards were also specified regarding the use of an electronic signature ("an electronic sound, symbol, or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record"), but the law did not specify technological standards for implementing the act. The act gave electronic signatures a legal standing similar to that of paper signatures, allowing contracts and other agreements, such as those establishing a loan or brokerage account, to be signed on line.


Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. The amount of trade conducted electronically has grown extraordinarily since the spread of the Internet. A wide variety of commerce is conducted in this way, spurring and drawing on innovations in electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at some point in the transaction's lifecycle, although it can encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail as well.


Business Applications

1.E-mail and messaging 
2.Documents, spreadsheets, database 
3.Accounting and finance systems 
4.Orders and shipment information 
5.Enterprise and client information reporting 
6.Domestic and international payment systems 

Government Regulations
Contemporary electronic commerce involves everything from ordering "digital" content for immediate online consumption, to ordering conventional goods and services, to "meta" services to facilitate other types of electonric commerce.

E-commerce is deals with buying and selling of information,products and services over computer communication networks the information is electronically transferred from computer to computer in an automated way.

• It refers to the paperless exchange of business information using Electronic Data Interchange,Electronic Bulletin Boards,Electronic Funds Transfer and other net work-based technologies
• E-commerce (electronic commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice, this term and a newer term, e-business, are often used interchangeably. For online retail selling, the term e-retailing is used.
• The uses of communication technologies to transmit business information and transact business. Taking an order over the telephone is a simple form of EC. Commerce conducted via the internet is also called EC, but commercial exchanges on the internet are only one of several advanced forms of EC that use different technologies, integrated applications and business processes to link enterprises.
• e-Commerce is the term for electronic business transactions, commerce or Internet trade. e-Commerce or e-business, therefore, refers to the business transactions between companies (B2B) or between companies and their customers (B2C) that are wholly or partially conducted over the Internet or similar public or private computer networks
• E-commerce (or electronic commerce) is any business transaction whose price or essential terms were
negotiated over an online system such as an Internet, Extranet, Electronic Data Interchange network, or electronic mail system. It does not include transactions negotiated via facsimile machine or switched telephone network, or payments made online for transactions whose terms were negotiated offline
• Refers to the buying and selling of goods and services electronically, usually via the Internet. Wireless e-commerce generally refers to m-commerce.
• Using electronic information technologies on the Internet to allow direct selling and automatic processing of purchases between parties.
• The act of conducting business on-line, e-commerce may include buying and selling products with digital cash and via electronic data interchange.
• e-commerce (electronic commerce) is the process of buying, selling and transferring money through the internet.
• Describes doing business - primarily buying and selling of goods and services - on the web. Also known as electronic commerce or EC. Thanks to its 24x7 availability, global reach, and interaction and information delivery capabilities, the web is rapidly becoming a multi-billion dollar source of revenue for business across the globe.
• This defines electronic business transactions (Electronic Commerce), on the World Wide Web. E-commerce allows customers to shop on your Web site 24/7 with “real time” processing.
• Electronic Commerce - the sale and purchase of goods or services over the Internet.
• Electronic Commerce is the process of buying and selling products or services, or the movement of funds via electronic means such as web browsers, telephones, mobile phones, etc.
• Electronic Commerce has come to mean many different things to many different people. Originally, the term meant selling things online. The term has evolved to mean conducting business online (which can include customer service functions, sales, marketing, PR, advertising, and more).
• Commerce conducted electronically (as on the internet)


Electronic commerce is a catalyst for dramatic changes in internal organizational functioning.

Electronic commerce has become critical in three inter related dimensions –customer to customer business dimension,intra business interactions and business to business interactions.

Electronic commerce is enabling the customer to have an increasing say in what products are made,how products are made and how services are delivered,thus customers having greater comtrol.

In the face of market changes,corporations can no longer be insular in nature.In order to be successful,management has come to grips with the changes taking place in the various market places.

This topic deals with the analytical evaluation of management issues and concerns effecting electronic commerce in the service provider businesses,retail,banking,electronic publishing.

In a nutshell,this topic offers an explanation of how the web is being used to develop public internet applications.It also explains the technology behind the web and the new directions of web technology



Electronic commerce,commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce,consists of the buying ansd selling of the products or services over electronic systems such as the internet and other computer networks.

• From a communications perspective,electronic commerce is the delivery of information,products/services,payments via telephone lines,computer networks or any other means.
• From a business process perspective,electronic commerce is the application of technology towards the automation of business transactions and workflows.
• From a service perspective,electronic commerce is a tool that addresses the desire of firms,consumers and management to cut service costs while improving the quality of goods and increasing the speed of service delivery.

Electronic commerce endeavors to improve the execution of business transactions over various networks.These improvements may result in more effective performance(i.e better quality,greater customer satisfaction and better corporate decision making),greater economic efficiency and more rapid exchange(high speed,accelerated,or real time interaction).More specifically,electronic commerce enables the execution of information-laden transactions between two or more parties using interconnected networks.


Another way of Electronic commerce is to view it as a production process that converts digital inputs into value added outputs through a set of intermediatories.
Currently,the goal of E-Commerce research and its associative implementations is to reduce the “friction” in online transactions.Friction is often described in economics as the transaction cost.
Ultimately the reduction of friction in online commerce will enable smoother transactions between buyers,intermediaries and sellers.


During the late 1970s and early 1980s,electronic commerce became widespread within companies in the form of electronic messaging technologies:electronic data interchange(EDI) and electronic mail.Electronic messaging technologies streamline business processes by reducing paper work and increasing automation.
In the mid 1980s,a completely different type of Electronic commerce technology spread among consumers in the form of online services that provided a new form of social interaction and knowledge sharing.
In the 1990s,the advent of World Wide Web on the internet represents a turning point in Ecommerce by providing easy-to-use technology solution to the problem of information publishing and dissemination.


1.Inter-organisational E-commerce: From the inter organizational perspective the E-commerce facilitates the following business applications:

• Supplier management:Electronic applications help companies reduce the number of suppliers and facilitate business partnerships by reducing purchase order processing costs.
• Inventory management:Electronic applications shorten the order-ship-bill cycle.This also helps to reduce inventory levels and eliminate out of stock occurrences.
• Distribution management:Electronic applications facilitate the transmission of shipping documents such as purchase order ,bills of lading and enable better resource management.
• Payment management:Electronic payment reduces clerical error,increases the speed at which companies compute invoice,lowers transaction fees and costs.

2.Intra-organisational E-commerce: From the intra-organisational perspective the Ecommerce facilitates the following business applications:

• Workgroup communications:These applications enable managers to communicate employees using electronic mail,video conferencing,and bulletin boards.
• Electronic publishing:These applications enable the companies to organize,publish and disseminate the human resources manuals,product specifications and meeting minutes using tools such as World Wide Web.
• Sales force productivity:These applications improve the flow of information between the production and sales forces and between the firms and customers.

3.Consumer-to-business Ecommerce: From the consumers perspective Ecommerce

facilitates the following economic transactions:

• Social interaction
• Personal finance management
• Purchasing products and information

What exactly is web?

The web has rapidly become the standard of navigating,publishing information and executing transactions on the internet or the intranets.Web is a collection of distributive documents referred to as “Pages” located on computers or servers all over the world.Servers store HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE(HTML) files and respond to requests.Browsers like Netscape ensure easy access to server based documents,and display multimedia data.
Future browsers will include editor-like abilities,application linking,audio and video integration,database front ends.
E-commerce is the application of information technology to support business processes and the exchange of goods and services. E-cash came into being when people began to think that if we can store, forward and manipulate information, why can't we do the same with money. Both blanks and post offices centralise distribution, information and credibility. E-money makes it possible to decentralise these functions.
Electronic data interchange, which is the subset of e-com, is a set of data definitions that permits business forms to be exchanged electronically. The different payment schemes E-cash, Net-cash and PayMe system and also smart card technology is also. The foundation of all requirements for commerce over the world wide web is secured system of payment so various security measures are adopted over the Internet.
E-commerce represents a market worth potentiality hundreds of billions of dollars in just a few years to come. So it provides enormous opportunities for business. It is expected that in near future, electronic transaction will be as popular, if not more that the credit card purchases today.

Business is about information. It is about the right people having the right information at the right time. Exchanging the information efficiently and accurately will determine the success of the business.

There are three phases of implementation of E-Commerce.

" Replace manual and paper-based operations with electronic alternatives
" Rethink and simplify the information flows
" Use the information flows in new and dynamic ways

PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor, is a widely used, general-purpose scripting language that was originally designed for web development, to produce dynamic web pages. PHP is the widely-used, free, and efficient alternative to competitors such as Microsoft's ASP. All types of open source PHP code and applications are available on Open Source Scripts.

PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor is a widely used, general-purpose scripting language that was originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. For this purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the web page document. As a general-purpose programming language, PHP code is processed by an interpreter application in command-line mode performing desired operating system operations and producing program output on its standard output channel. It may also function as a graphical application. PHP is available as a processor for most modern web servers and as standalone interpreter on most operating systems and computing platforms.

PHP Documentation Framework

The PHP documentation is written in XML using the DocBook DTD. If you would like to contribute to the PHP documentation project, you need to at least know the very basics of XML and DocBook.

The XML files are stored on a central server, and can be reached with a SVN client. There are many SVN clients you can use, although we recommend one command line tool or a proven WYSIWYG tool.

You will need more programs and tools to manipulate the XML files and test their content for errors. The tools you need depend on the operating system you use. Linux or some sort of Unix is recommended, although many things in phpdoc work on Windows. You will find more information about the tools you need in the tools section. 

MySQL is a database.
The data in MySQL is stored in database objects called tables.
A table is a collection of related data entries and it consists of columns and rows.

Databases are useful when storing data into server. A company may have a database with the following tables: "Employees", "Products", "Customers" and "Orders".

Basic object-oriented programming functionality was added in PHP 3 and improved in PHP 4. Object handling was completely rewritten for PHP 5, expanding the feature set and enhancing performance. In previous versions of PHP, objects were handled like value types. The drawback of this method was that the whole object was copied when a variable was assigned or passed as a parameter to a method. In the new approach, objects are referenced by handle, and not by value. PHP 5 introduced private and protected member variables and methods, along with abstract classes and final classes as well as abstract methods and final methods. It also introduced a standard way of declaring constructors and destructors, similar to that of other object-oriented languages such as C++, and a standard exception handling model. Furthermore, PHP 5 added interfaces and allowed for multiple interfaces to be implemented. There are special interfaces that allow objects to interact with the runtime system. Objects implementing ArrayAccess can be used with array syntax and objects implementing Iterator or IteratorAggregate can be used with the foreach language construct. There is no virtual table feature in the engine, so static variables are bound with a name instead of a reference at compile time.

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